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There are almost too many causes for low sperm count to list in a short response, but the most common causes can be grouped into, 1) general health concerns, like obesity, or an uncontrolled or even yet-to-be-diagnosed medical condition, 2) prior medical problems like childhood illnesses or surgeries, 3) exposures like tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, workout supplements, or other occupational or environmental chemicals, 4) anatomical problems with the testicles that expose them to too much heat, the most common of which is a dilation of veins above the testicle called a varicocele, 5) hormone problems like low testosterone, and 6) genetic problems that a man was born with, most often of which cause no other noticeable health concern other than male infertility.  When sperm counts are low, a man should take a close look at his potential exposures, but the most important thing he can do is seek an evaluation with a reproductive urologist for a complete evaluation including physical exam and blood work.